Kiesler Olga

MSPE "Bohr Vocational and Technical College"

Professor of chemistry-biology

The second category


Thing: Biology

Course: II

Topic: Mutational variability (PresentationDOWNLOAD) Slide 1

Type of: Study of new material, and the initial consolidation.

Lesson type:with conversation elements Lecture


Mutational variability can be of different types, but in any case it affects the genotype of the individual and leads to rapid changes. Understanding of its mechanism will save mankind from a number of problems. This lesson reveals the essence of "volatility" of the concept, the specifics of its forms and features of mutational variability. The main provisions of the mutation theory, the concept of mutagenesis and mutagen. The presentation shows the classification and types of mutation. The features of the gene, chromosomal, intrachromosomal, and genomic mutations.

goal: To discover the essence of mutation, generate knowledge of genotypic genetic variation, form the ability to explain the variability based on cytological and genetic knowledge. Influence of ambient environmental factors on the development of organisms and in particular to human life (slide 2).

Lesson Resources:computer, multimedia equipment (videoDOWNLOAD) "Mutations in the human", presentation, workbooks, textbooks.

During the classes.

1.Organizatsionny moment.

Greeting report elder's readiness and visiting groups. Mental attitude of students for the lesson.

2.Aktualizatsiya knowledge of students.

Teacher: Before we move on to the study of a new topic, let us remember that studies the genetics and check homework.

Further, students are invited oral questioning of the terms.

1.What is studying genetics? (Studies heredity and variation characteristic of all living organisms.)

  1. What is heredity? Which means the variability? (Heredity-property (ability) of living organisms to repeat a number of generations the appearance, the type of metabolism, particularly development and other features characteristic of each species variability -. This property of living organisms, that is, they can exist in different variations in the course of their individual development through sexual reproduction or besspolovom) Students check answers using the interactive whiteboard (Slide 3).

3.Izuchenie new material.

The teacher together with the students puts the lesson problem: is it possible to influence the occurrence of mutations? Is it possible to influence the manifestation of mutations? (Slide 4) .On the multimedia board demonstrates the video "Mutations in the human" .After watching the video students are asked to answer a series of questions: What are the causes mutations (mutations that arise under the influence of special effects?). What factors may affect the mutation? (Radioactive rays, chemicals). So what is it? mutation.

Teacher: Let's give a definition of this concept (Slide 5) .Obuchayuschiesya record definition in a notebook. The term given in 1901, geneticist DeVries. The summary of his observations in 1901 he created the mutation theory, the main provisions of which have not lost their significance to this day. (Slide 6).

Teacher: Mutations can be classified. (Slide 7).

at the place of their origin - they are divided into somatic and generative.

on the effect on the viability of individuals to helpful, harmful or neutral

the type of allelic interactions - on dominant and recessive.

Teacher: The main types of mutations are: genomic, chromosomal and gene mutations. (Slide 8)

Gene - replacement, loss The addition of nucleotides in the DNA (Slide 9).

Chromosomal (Slide 10,11)

Hemophilia - "the royal disease" hereditary disease associated with impaired coagulation (blood clotting); thus there is bleeding in the joints, muscles and internal organs, as spontaneous and as a result of injury or surgery.

Genomic (Slide 12)

Hereditary diseases (Slide 13)

Teacher: Down Syndrome - trisomy 21 syndrome, the most common form of chromosomal aberrations occurring for every 750 healthy people. (Slayd14,15).

Teacher: For chromosomal set Down Syndrome trisomy is a simple (94% cases), translocation form (4%) or mosaicism (2%) Teacher:. When mutations occur in any cell of the body except gametes are called somatic. (Slide 16) .If mutated plant cell, from which then will develop a kidney, and then - escape, then all of the cells will escape mutant. So, in the bush of black currant branch may be white or red berries. Vegetative reproduction - in this case, the handle of the escape - the new properties will be observed in the offspring. Thus we can derive a new variety currant. If somatic mutation arose in the early stages of individual development (ontogeny), from the mutated cells can develop a large piece of tissue, all of which cells are mutated. These individuals are called mosaics. For example, a person with the eyes of a different color is a mosaic. But sexual reproduction new sign, which appeared as a result of somatic mutation, offspring is not sent, because the gametes of this mutation is not present.

Teacher: Let's look at the factors that cause mutations: 1.Physical (ultraviolet rays, radioactive radiation, etc.); 2. Chemical (chemicals - mutagens, e.g., cigarette smoke, alcohol, etc.); 3.Biologicheskie (e.g., viruses) (Slide 17) .Bez mutations will not change, means - stop evolution. And if conditions on the ground will change, the types will not be able to adapt to them and die (Slide 18).

4.Obyasnenie new material ends up joint conclusions of the teacher and students and outlines in the Workbook:

-Mutatsionnye studies are widely used in evolutionary biology to the study of the origin of races and nationalities.

-Genomnye mutation of chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations - the cause of many genetic diseases and congenital malformations.

Mutation in some harmful or neutral conditions may be useful in the changed conditions. The highest value for the evolution are gene mutations.

Mutation - the perfect material for the process of evolution.

Mutation - create material for breeders.

Mutation occurring in humans - a source of misery they cause the death of embryos, and the appearance of the patient's offspring incurable disease (Slide 19).

5.Zakreplenie: Topics covered. Teacher: In a multimedia presentation by the board, students are asked to answer the following questions:

  1. Features of the structure and function of any organism define proteins that make up the cells. Why is it considered that the formation of the characteristics of the organism is influenced by genes? In what appears a link between genes, proteins and traits of an organism?

2.A some variability refers mutation and combinative variability

Answers to questions on the interactive whiteboard (Slide 20).


Teacher: In the beginning of the lesson we put the problem question: Can we affect the mutation? Students answer the question (yes, it is necessary to know their characteristics, znat- that can cause genetic damage).

Learner is given an individual card, which is necessary to emphasize the phrases that characterize the work of the student in the classroom in three directions.


I'm in class







helped others

I is useful in life

I learned more than he knew

At the lesson was something to think about

7.Domashnee job: Textbook on general biology Kosymbaeva T Mukhametzhanov K 202-205.Podgotovit page report on the theme: "The law of homologous series of genetic variation" -operezhayuschee job. (Slide 21).

Used Books:

  1. Kosymbaeva T Mukhametzhanov K
  2. TL Bogdanova, EA Malt. Biology. Handbook for high school and entering college. 2006.
  3. GM Murtazik. Problems and exercises in general biology. M. Education. 1972.
  4. TL Bogdanov. Biology. Tasks and exercises. Handbook for entering universities. M .: Higher School. 1991.

5 K. Willie B. Dete. Biology. Biological processes and laws. Publishing world. 1975.

6 From molecules to humans. M. Education. 1973. SG Momontov. Biology. Bustard. 1997.

  1. TA Hwang, PA Hwang. Fundamentals of Ecology. Rostov-on-Don. Phoenix. 2001.